Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Detailed information on abdominal aortic aneurysms, including description of abdominal aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical and procedure illustrations
About Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
Arthritis, itself a group of more than 100 different diseases, is one category of rheumatic diseases.
About Breast Cancer in Men
Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas occur in men.
About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.
Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancer. More recently, tamoxifen is being used as an additional therapy following primary treatment for early stage breast cancer.
Taxol, or paclitaxel, is a drug used for treating certain women who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel is a compound that is extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.
Accomplishments of Environmental Medicine
One highlight: Exposure to fine particles, sulfur dioxide, and acid aerosols has been linked to an increase in respiratory symptoms and reduced lung capacity.
Detailed information on acne, including causes, symptoms, and different types of treatment such as medication, dermabrasion, chemical peels, collagen injections, laser resurfacing, punch grafts, phototherapy/blue light therapy, and autologous fat transfer
Acne Scar Removal
Detailed information on different techniques for acne scar removal, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, collagen injections, laser resurfacing, punch grafts, and autologous fat transfer
Acoustic neuroma is a noncancerous tumor that may develop from an overproduction of Schwann cells that press on the hearing and balance nerves in the inner ear.
Detailed information on acromegaly, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Actinic Keratosis (A Precancerous Condition)
Detailed information on actinic keratosis, including causes and treatment
Acupuncture is the practice of puncturing the skin with needles at certain anatomical points in the body to relieve specific symptoms associated with many diseases.
Detailed information on acute bronchitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Detailed information on acute lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Detailed information on acute myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.
Detailed information on the adrenal gland, its anatomy and function
Adrenal Tumors / Pheochromocytoma
Detailed information on adrenal gland tumors and pheochromocytoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Advances in Therapeutic Radiology
One newer therapy combines radiation and chemotherapy, because in some cases, radiation may improve the effects of chemotherapy, and vice versa. Another therapy uses external beam radiation during surgery to treat cancerous tumors or certain other forms of cancer.
African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)
Detailed information on African trypanosomiasis, also called African sleeping sickness, including symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
After Surgery: Discomforts and Complications
Detailed information on postoperative discomforts and potential complications, including shock, hemorrhage, wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary complications, urinary retention, and reaction to anesthesia
After You Return
Detailed information on health considerations after returning home from traveling abroad
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Age-related macular degeneration is a disease that affects an individual's central vision, making it difficult of read, drive, or perform other daily activities.
Detailed information on air pollution and air pollution prevention
Detailed information on healthy considerations for air travel, including ways to prevent motion sickness and jet lag
Detailed information on airway obstruction and children, including choking, suffocation, and strangulation
Alcohol and Pregnancy
Alcohol consumption by the mother is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the fetus. In addition, the risk for miscarriage and stillbirth increases with alcohol consumption.
Alcohol Use and People with Diabetes
Alcohol can lower blood sugar levels to the point of hypoglycemia. Keep careful track of your blood sugar levels when drinking alcohol, because certain diabetes medications also lower blood glucose levels.
Detailed information on alcoholic hepatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease
Detailed information on alcohol induced liver disease, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
All About Allergy
Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
All About Asthma
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease with recurrent breathing problems.
Allergen: Insect Stings
Detailed information on allergic reactions to insect bites and stings
Household pets, like cats and dogs, are the most common sources of animal allergens.
Allergens: Chemical Sensitivity
Detailed information on synthetic and natural substances that cause sensitivity to the skin
Allergens: Dust and Dust Mites
Dust mites are microscopic organisms that can live and thrive throughout homes and businesses.
Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Allergens: Poison Ivy/Poison Oak/Poison Sumac
Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac can all cause bumps and blisters that itch. Teach your children what these plants look like and how to avoid them.
Pollen is the most common cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, sometimes known as "hay fever."
Allergens: Triggers of Allergy Attacks
Detailed information on allergy triggers and symptom control
Detailed information on allergies in children, including information on allergic rhinitis and food allergies
Allergies and the Immune System
Most allergic reactions are a result of an immune system that responds to a "false alarm."
Allergy and Asthma Statistics
More than 22 million Americans have been diagnosed with asthma. Find out other facts and figures on this chronic disease.
Detailed information on alpha thalassemia, including cause, diagnosis, and treatment
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, a disorder in which mental functions deteriorate and break down.
Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.
Detailed information on amputation, including causes and types of rehabilitation programs for amputations
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurological disorder marked by the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. It is often referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, after a famous baseball player who died from it.
Detailed information on analgesic nephropathy, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and acute kidney failure
Detailed information on several of the different divisions of anatomical pathology, including biopsy, surgical pathology, cytology, and autopsy
Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.
Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System
The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. Its pumping action is regulated by electrical impulses.
Anatomy of a Joint
Joints are the areas where two or more bones meet. Most joints are mobile, allowing the bones to move.
Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
Anatomy of the Bone
A typical bone in your body contains three types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.
Anatomy of the Brain
The brain is an important organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, respiration, temperature, hunger, and every process that regulates your body.
Anatomy of the Breasts
Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.
Anatomy of the Elbow
The elbow is a hinge joint between the humerus bone in the upper arm and the radius and ulnar bones in the lower arm.
Anatomy of the Endocrine System
The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.
Anatomy of the Eye
The structures of the eye include the cornea, iris, pupil, macula, retina, and the optic nerve.
Anatomy of the Foot
Your feet are susceptible to many stresses. Foot pain and problems can cause pain, inflammation, or injury.
Anatomy of the Hand
Each of your hands has three types of bones: phalanges in your fingers; metacarpals in your mid-hand, and carpals in your wrist.
Anatomy of the Knee
The knee is a vulnerable joint that bears a lot of stress from everyday activities such as lifting and from high-impact activities such as jogging.
Anatomy of the Male and Female Pelvis
The pelvis is a basin-shaped structure that supports the spinal column and protects the abdominal organs.
Anatomy of the Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck of a man’s bladder and urethra—the tube that carries urine from the bladder.
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
The respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs.
Anatomy of the Shoulder
The shoulder is a complex joint with several layers, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
Anatomy of the Skin
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
Anatomy of the Spine
Your backbone, also called the vertebral column, is made up of 33 vertebrae separated by spongy disks.
Anatomy of the Urinary System
Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
Anatomy: Fetus in Utero
A thin-walled sac surrounds the fetus during pregnancy. The sac is filled with amniotic fluid, which protects the fetus from injury.
Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Anemia of B12 Deficiency (Pernicious Anemia)
Detailed information on megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Anemia of Folate Deficiency
Detailed information on anemia of folate deficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on the different types of anemia, including aplastic anemia, anemia of folate deficiency, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and sickle cell disease
Detailed information on the dangers of aneurysm, how an aneurysm develops, and aneurysm diagnosis
Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough blood and oxygen for a given level of work.
Sometimes called antiangiogenic therapy, this treatment may prevent the growth of cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels.
Animal Bites and Rabies
Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Detailed information on ankylosing spondylitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on the use of antibiotics and children
Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias
Detailed information on aphasia, including cause, diagnosis, types, and treatment
Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on appendicitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart that can cause the heart to pump less effectively.
Art Therapy, Dance Therapy, Music Therapy, and Imagery
Art, dance, music—all are examples of mind-body therapy. Although these therapies do not cure cancer, they provide an outlet for emotions and can improve mental and physical well-being.
Art, Dance, and Music
Detailed information on art therapy, dance therapy, and music therapy as a form of alternative therapy
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are characterized by pain, swelling, and limited movement in joints and connective tissues in the body.
Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases Statistics
Rheumatic diseases are the leading cause of disability among people ages 65 and older.
Diagnosing arthritis and other rheumatic diseases is often difficult, as many symptoms are similar among the different diseases.
Orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopy to diagnose and treat joint problems. An arthroscope is a small, tube shaped instrument that is used to look inside a joint.
Assistive Equipment for the Home
Assistive equipment includes shower seats and bathtub mats; walkers, canes, and wheelchairs; and telephones for the hearing-impaired.
Detailed information on asthma attack triggers and avoidance of allergens and other irritants
Asthma and Exercise
Exercise-induced asthma is different from the typical asthma that is triggered by allergens and/or irritants.
Asthma and Pregnancy
With proper asthma management and good prenatal care, most women with asthma can have healthy pregnancies.
Ataxia is a symptom—not a disorder. It refers to a failure of muscle control in the arms and legs, resulting in a lack of balance, coordination, and possibly a disturbance in gait.